At this point it has become evident that the Big Bang model and its evolutionary timeline are in serious trouble. The evolution model does not provide an explanation for the cause of the Big Bang event, nor can it explain the apparent design of the laws and constants of nature. If it all happened by chance, the universe should be bubbling with life, however earth has emerged as potentially the only planet where life is possible and it seems rather uniquely “prepared” for observation of our solar system, our galaxy and the rest of space. Even if earth was the result of “winning the cosmic lottery” against inconceivable odds, after decades of intense research scientists have made no progress on their quest to explain how the first living organisms came into existence. The previous chapter showed that there is no viable mechanism for simple life forms to evolve to more complex ones. As the final nail in the coffin of the evolutionary timeline, the fossil record does not confirm the existence of intermediate species. On the contrary, it shows the abrupt occurrence of completely formed phyla during the Cambrian Explosion.
Still, there is more evidence to share. In this chapter, we will examine another cluster of exhibits that reveal divine involvement in the creation of our universe and our very existence.
Through the last decades science has struggled to estimate the age of the human race. Obviously, evolution would insist this occurred a long time ago, as it would take an incredible span of time for the first human-like creature (the cave man or monkey man) to develop into the sophisticated humans of today.
First, it must be observed that current estimates for the age of mankind are still all over the board. The lack of reliable dating methods for organic material is a serious challenge for all paleo-anthropologists. This might surprise you, but the only reliable dating method for organic material is Carbon-14 dating. This procedure can date organic material such as bones and teeth accurately but only to a maximum of 25,000-30,000 years. Dating older organic material is nothing more than guesswork. In many cases these guesses rely on “leap of faith” assumptions by dating the rocks found near the organic material in question, wildly asserting these rocks were formed at the same time as the bones/skull/teeth were deposited. Obviously that is not science, but only wishful thinking.
Biochemical Dates for Early Man and Woman
Recently the advance of genetics has opened a new pathway to estimate the age of mankind through the analysis of human organic material. By comparing samples of currently living humans with well dated DNA samples from the past, an estimate can be made for the rate the human DNA record changes. Applying this estimated natural mutation rate to a representative sampling of the DNA of today’s world population, allows to estimate how much time would be required for today’s human DNA to mutate (“deteriorate”) from a common ancestor. As every cell in the human body contains the combined DNA from both the father and the mother, analyzing this DNA would not allow to trace the separate ancestry of the male or female. However, two portions of human genetic material do not recombine in reproduction, namely:
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) This DNA resides in the so called mitochondria structures, outside the cell’s nucleus. Both men and women get nearly all of their mtDNA only from their mother. In the late 1980s and early 1990s a number of studies examined the mtDNA of women all over the world. These concluded that all women descended from one “Eve” who lived within the last 200,000 years. Refinements in measurements lowered these original estimates to 135,000 years and finally to less than 100,000 years. These studies not only suggest a much younger age for humanity than previously assumed, but also indicate that all humans descend from ONE woman, ruling out that humans would have simultaneously evolved in multiple locations/regions.
A large segment of the Y-chromosome. Only men have a Y-chromosome, most of which they receive only from their father. Since 1995 studies have been conducted to trace genes on this Y-chromosome to determine the age and descent of males. Various studies all indicate younger ages for mankind. What may well be the most reliable study published so far, calculates a common ancestor to modern man at between 37,000 and 49,000 years ago.
These studies also indicate that genetically all humans are much more alike than one would predict from Darwinian theory. Examinations of the genetic sequences of diverse modern human populations reveal minor differences, if any at all. One scientist noted: “It’s a mystery none of us can explain.” All this evidence suggests a recent origin for modern humans, far more recent than evolutionary theory would allow.
Evidence from archaeology and anthropology is consistent with such estimates for the age of humanity. Sophisticated works of art first appear about 40,000-50,000 years ago, and evidence of religious relics and altars date back no earlier than 25,000 years.
Table 7-1 is an overview of the various estimates of the age of mankind in the scientific community over the last decades. It shows how dramatically these estimates have changed and how wrong the initial estimates were by “modern” science. This table also shows the age of the oldest evidences of human civilizations and peoples, based on archaeological finds. Most of these ancient leftovers of human habitation date back only 15,000 years ago. Claims for older finds are rarely presented.
Table 7- 1 : Estimated Age of Mankind during the Last Decades
Accounts in the Biblical book of Genesis mention the descendents from the first man, Adam, through Noah, Abraham and Moses. Based on the literal reading of this data, it can be calculated that Adam was created by God a little over 6,000 years ago. This is also the date claimed by Six Day Creationists for the actual creation of the world. Other scholars point out the common practice of ancient Hebrew culture to skip generations in the genealogical records. Thus it is conceivable there were substantially more generations between Adam and Abraham than recorded in Genesis. These scholars generally theorize that, based on these records, Adam and Eve could have lived 8,000 to even 25,000 years ago. These views are the basis of the suggested range of 6,000 to 25,000 years old for the age of mankind. These Biblical estimates are surprisingly consistent with those supported by archaeology.
Whichever way one looks at the data, one conclusion is inescapable: as time progresses, estimates from science come ever closer to the age inferred by the Biblical accounts.
An Alternative Reasoning About the Age of Mankind
Today’s world population hovers near 6.5 billion people, growing at an annual rate of 2.3%. A statistic somewhat mind-boggling observation is, that more people are alive today than have ever lived before! Just in the last one hundred years, the world population has increased more than six-fold!
We can use these numbers and attempt to work backwards to calculate how long it would take to grow this world population at different growth rates starting with “Adam and Eve”. The result of this exercise has resulted in table 7-2. Assuming a generation to be 25 years, the table also shows the average number of children per family that corresponds with the growth rate.
Table 7- 2 : Growth Rates Versus the Age of Mankind
This demonstrates that even with a very low growth rate of the population, such as .5% (quite low compared to the current 2.3%) and the average number of children per family 2.25, only 4,550 years would be required to grow a population of 6.5 billion from just one original couple. Even with the growth rate at only .25%, only 9,100 years would be required to achieve the same.
One might claim that the lack of medical knowledge dramatically lowered the average life expectancy of our “ancient” ancestors, forcing the growth rate to be much lower. However mankind has a strong drive to populate and continue to preserve and grow the species. As observed often today, areas with the lowest degree of development and by far the lowest life expectancy, see their population growing the fastest. Women can bear children in their teenage years, so even a life expectancy of only 25 or 30 years of age, still gives more than enough time to get large families.
The same applies for the aftermath of epidemics (for instance,
the plague in
The Population Boom After the European Plagues
A similar line of thinking challenges that even the low range of the biochemical estimate of 37,000 years of human habitation might still be too high. If the “first family” was alive that long ago, even at a low growth rate of .5% we now should have a world population of 1.4 x 1080 (that would be calculated as (1 + 0.005 (the .5% growth rate)) ^ 37,000 (years)).
Lastly, please notice that the global flood described by the Bible happened about 4,500-5,000 years ago. This event would be quite consistent with the above calculations of growth rate and size of today’s world population..
Continue with (2) Exhibit #9: Irreducible complex machines
 See Appendix B: Dating Rocks, Fossils and Bones.
 Dr. Hugh Ross , The Genesis Question (2001), chapter 14.
 These changes would be small mutations, as discussed in the previous chapter. The effect of these mutations on the human species would be negligible as they would be neutralized through DNA repair and/or would be neutral mutations.
 Mitochondria are the “cellular power plants.” They convert food molecules into energy. Mitochondria contain DNA that is independent of the DNA in the chromosomes that is stored in the cell nucleus.
 Cann, Stoneking and Wilson, Mitochondrial DNA and Human Evolution (1987) and a number of other studies
 Stoneking, Sherry, Redd and Vigilant, New Approaches to Dating Suggest a Recent Age for the Human mtDNA Ancestor (1992)
 Whitfiled, Suston and Goodfellow, Sequence Variation of the Human Y Chromosome, Nature 378 (1995), pages 379-380.
 A. Gibbons, The Mystery of Humanity’s Missing Mutations (1995). Science 267:35-36.
 R.G. Klein, Evolutionary Anthropology (1992) 1:5-14.
C. Simon, Stone-age
Sanctuary, Oldest Known Shrine, Discovered in
 Interpretations very, depending on how many generations might have been skipped in the genealogies.
 Average number of children is calculated as 2 times (1+growth rate)^25 (years).
 Recovery of the European population following the plagues of 1347 was only two hundred years, chart based on research published in Ian T. Taylor, Darwin and the New World Order (1992), chapter 12.
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